Here’s a list of current (and fantastic) online resources for teachers. If you know of any good links that I’ve missed, please submit them here.
ABC ‘First Footprints’ official website – a great interactive site that ties in with the TV series
ABC Gold Coast – shell middens – some good images and a useful soundbite
Aboriginal Cultural Heritage Mini-Poster Series – quality images and explanations for general archaeological terms and artefacts
Aboriginal Heritage Office – information about heritage
Aboriginal Heritage Tasmania – shell middens – Tassie heritage
The Australian Museum – good overview of Ancient Australian past
CaveWorks – megafauna – some great images and info about megafauna
Dust Echoes study guides – Indigenous heritage study guides on a variety of topics
History Teachers Association of Australia – Narrabeen Man classroom activity – excellent teaching resource, with project downloads, activity instructions, and assessment outline
History Teachers’ Association of Victoria – handouts available for latest conference
Melbourne Museum’s Bunjilaka Aboriginal Cultural Centre – if you can’t get your class to this exceptional permanent exhibition (an absolute MUST for local students) then check out the quality online resources
Mungo Explorer – an interesting case study, with interactive resources and teacher classroom packs
Mungo National Park – information to support Mungo activities
National Trust of Australia (WA) teacher’s resource – advice for teachers when teaching Aboriginal history
National Trust of Australia (WA) depth study outline – some good case studies
NSW Government: Heritage and Environment – shell middens – information about shell middens
SBS ‘First Australians’ complete series online – gotta love the SBS for making this fantastic series available in full for free
In 1996, a team of archaeologists excavated Jinmium rock shelter, which is located in a remote area of the Kimberleys. They found a rich array of stone artefacts, as well as some stone engravings called ‘cupules’ that are thought to be examples of some of the oldest form of rock art in the world.
In their preliminary findings, the archaeologists published the following:
We report stone artefacts found in sediments dated by thermoluminescence (TL) to greater than 116,000 ± 12,000 years. If that correctly dates the human presence in Australia, it almost doubles previous luminescence age estimates and is beyond any possible overlap with radiocarbon determinations (Fullagar et al, 1996).
The archaeology team concluded that this finding signalled a need for further investigation into the occupation dates at Jinmium.
As soon as these preliminary findings were published, the media pounced, reporting that Australia had been occupied for up to 176,000 years. Here are some extracts from journal publications and news reports:
Jinmium’s sediments were recalculated for verification, and it turned out that the thermoluminescence dates were correct – but the artefacts found in the lower layers were much younger than their surrounding stratigraphy.
It turned out that the sediments at Jinmium had shifted, meaning that lower layers were contaminated with material from the upper layers. The TL dates were correct, but archaeologists concluded that sand grains weren’t the only things moving up and down in the ground. The artefacts had moved as well.
The artefacts excavated from the deepest, most ancient layers at Jinmium had in fact been pushed down from the upper levels, possibly as a result of the soft, crumbly bedrock, which meant that artefacts could easily have fallen through the gaps in the stone. It could also be because many people over thousands of years had been trampling on the dirt and this pressure had pushed the artefacts deeper into the ground.
After extensive analyses of sediments and repeated dating methods (about six dating methods were used at Jinmium), it was determined that Jinmium’s artefacts were only around 10,000-20,000 years old. The media’s misrepresentation of the science had turned a tentative hypothesis into an explosive news headline.
eResources for Jinmium:
Bahn, P 1996, ‘Further Back Down Under’, Nature, vol. 383, p. 557-8.
Bowler, JM & Magee, JW 2000, ‘Redating Australia’s oldest human remains: a sceptic’s view’, Journal of Human Evolution, vol. 38, p. 719-726.
Burke, H & Smith, C 2004, The Archaeologist’s Field Handbook, Allen & Unwin, Crows Nest.
Fullagar, R, Price, D & Head, L 1996, ‘Early human occupation of northern Australia: archaeology and thermoluminescence dating of Jinmium rock-shelter, Northern Territory’, Antiquity, vol. 70, p. 751-773.
Hiscock, P 2008, Archaeology of Ancient Australia, Routledge, New York.
Holden, C 1996, ‘Art Stirs Uproar Down Under’, Science, vol. 274, p. 33-34.
Mulvaney, J & Kamminga, J 1999, Prehistory of Australia, Allen & Unwin, Crows Nest, NSW.
O’Connell, JF & Allen, J 2004, ‘Dating the colonization of Sahul (Pleistocene Australia-New Guinea) a review of recent research’, Journal of Archaeological Science, vol. 31, p. 835-853.
Roberts, R et al. 1998, ‘Optical and radiocarbon dating at Jinmium rockshelter in northern Australia’, Nature, vol. 393, p. 358-362.
Spooner, NA 1998, ‘Human occupation at Jinmium, northern Australia: 116,000 years ago or much less?’, Antiquity, vol. 72, no. 275, p. 173-178.
Watchman et al. 2000, ‘Minimum ages for pecked rock markings from Jinmium, north western Australia’, Archaeology in Oceania, vol. 35, p. 1-10.
Wilford, JN (1996, September 21), ‘In Australia, Signs of Artists Who Predate Homo Sapiens’, New York Times, available here.